Economy of Agricultural and Processing Enterprises, 2022, No 10

Contents

AGRARIAN ECONOMIC POLICY

Petrikov A.V. Rural local economy: specifics and actual problems of development in Russia (p. 2-8)

Minakov I.A. Directions and effectiveness of state support of the agrarian economy (p. 9-15)

Butyrin V.V., Karapotkin O.G., Platonovskiy N.G. Losses in the agro-food sector of Russia and the possibility of their reduction (p. 16-24)

AIC ENTERPRISES IN MARKET ECONOMY

Saraykin V.A. Assessment of the impact of productive longevity of cows on milk production and methane emissions into the environment in accordance with the concept of a low-carbon economy (p. 25-32)

Kvochkin A.N., Kvochkina V.I. The potential of increasing the production of cattle meat due to the inclusion in the turnover of unused natural forage lands (p. 33-37)

Jurk N.A. Assessment and identification of environmental aspects in food production within the environmental management system (p. 38-42)

INNOVATIVE DEVELOPMENT

Paptsov A.G., Sokolova Zh.E. Global innovative developments related to renewable energy in the scope of modern agrifood systems energy requirements (p. 43-54)

Semin A.N., Iovlev G.A. Adaptation of rural mechanizers to innovative economic conditions (p. 55-61)

FINANCES AND CREDIT

Ovsyanko L.A., Shelkovnikov S.A., Chepeleva K.V. Processing of oilseeds in agricultural organizations of the Krasnoyarsk Territory and the choice of tax strategy (p. 62-71)

BUSINESS ENTITIES: PROBLEMS AND PRACTICES

Goncharov V.D. Farming and households of the population in ensuring food security (p. 72-78)

 

 

DOI 10.31442/0235-2494-2022-0-10-2-8

p. 2-8

Original article

Rural local economy: specifics and actual problems of development in Russia

Alexander V. Petrikov

A.A. Nikonov VIAPI, branch of Federal Scientific Center of Agrarian Economy and Social Development of Rural Areas - VNIIESkH, Moscow, Russia

Abstract. In the context of a new geopolitical crisis, when global markets are working intermittently, the importance of regional and local economies is increasing. The local economy is characterized by relatively small volumes of economic turnover, their localization on a small territory (economic ties are largely established between local producers and consumers), the use of mainly internal development resources. This increases its sustainability and economic importance, especially in rural areas. The article examines the specifics of the rural local economy through the characteristics of its most important socio-economic functions: ensuring food security of the country, region, municipality, rural households; meeting the growing consumer demand for high-quality, including organic food; preserving the biodiversity of agrobiocenoses; reproduction of folk material and spiritual culture, cultural diversity of the country; increasing employment and the income of the rural population. The conclusion is substantiated that without the organization of an effective local economy, sustainable development of rural areas is not possible. Special attention in the article is paid to small business in agriculture. The tendencies of its development over the past five years are analyzed; the ways of solving the accumulated problems are substantiated.

Keywords: local economy, sustainable development of rural areas, agrarian policy, agricultural organizations, peasant (farmer) farms, individual entrepreneurs, personal subsidiary farms, the role of small business in the economy, subsidies, loans

 

Information about the author:

A.V. Petrikov Academician of RAS, PhD (Economics), Professor, Head of A.A. Nikonov VIAPI, branch of FSBSI FRC VNIIESH

 

 

DOI 10.31442/0235-2494-2022-0-10-9-15

p. 9-15

Original article

Directions and effectiveness of state support of the agrarian economy

Ivan A. Minakov

Michurinsk State Agrarian University, Michurinsk, Tambov Region, Russia

Abstract. The system of state support of the agrarian economy (the amount of budget allocations from the federal budget, directions, measures and effectiveness), which contributed to the increase in the production of agricultural products and allowed to reach the threshold value of indicators of food independence for many food products with the exception of milk, potatoes, vegetables and fruits, is considered. It is noted that the production of agricultural products is carried out using imported material and technical resources, the share of which is slowly decreasing. The proposals for improving budget support for industries producing import-substituting products and means of production for agriculture, small forms of management, especially personal subsidiary farms, the development of the storage base of agricultural products in the places of its production are substantiated.

Keywords: agrarian economy, the volume of budget allocations, efficiency, food independence, directions and measures of state support

 

Information about the author:

I.A. Minakov PhD (Economics), Professor (ekapk@yandex.ru)

The article was submitted to the editorial office on 29.07.2022, approved after reviewing and corresponding authors revision on 17.08.2022, accepted for publication on 29.08.2022

 

 

DOI 10.31442/0235-2494-2022-0-10-16-24

p. 16-24

Original article

Losses in the agro-food sector of Russia and the possibility of their reduction

Vasiliy V. Butyrin1, Oleg G. Karapotkin2, Nikolay G. Platonovskiy3

1,3Russian State Agrarian University Moscow Timiryazev Agricultural Academy, Moscow, Russia

2Moscow State Institute of International Relations (University) of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

Abstract. The article deals with the problem of food losses and food waste at various stages of production and distribution chains as an integral part of global food and environmental problems, including its manifestation in the agro-industrial complex of Russia. The relevance of studying this topic is due to insufficient attention to it in our country from both the state and society. At the same time, food losses negatively affect the economy and the environment. The paper clarifies the concepts of food losses and food waste. Based on the analysis of research results and assessment of food losses, the causes of their occurrence are identified, as well as the main factors of the formation of food waste at the stages of marketing of food products are analyzed. Possible options for reducing losses and waste in the agro-food complex of the agro-industrial complex of Russia are proposed on the basis of: coordinating the work of government and business in this area; implementing investment projects to create the necessary infrastructure to avoid losses at the stages of production, transportation and storage of products; minimizing waste and loss of products with expiring shelf life due to technological and organizational solutions; attracting public attention and strengthening educational work in all layers of society, primarily among children and youth.

Keywords: global food problem, sustainable development goals, food products, supply chain, food losses, food waste, environmental damage, agro-food complex, Russia

 

Information about the authors:

V.V. Butyrin PhD (Economics), Professor (v.butyrin@rgau-msha.ru)

O.G. Karapotkin Student (karapotkin-oleg@yandex.ru)

N.G. Platonovskiy PhD (Economics), Associate Professor (platonovsky@rgau-msha.ru)

The article was submitted to the editorial office on 03.04.2022, approved after reviewing and corresponding authors revision on 22.08.2022, accepted for publication on 29.08.2022

 

 

DOI 10.31442/0235-2494-2022-0-10-25-32

p. 25-32

Original article

Assessment of the impact of productive longevity of cows on milk production and methane emissions into the environment in accordance with the concept of a low-carbon economy

Valeriy A. Saraykin

A.A. Nikonov VIAPI, branch of Federal Scientific Center of Agrarian Economy and Social Development of Rural Areas - VNIIESkH, Moscow, Russia

Abstract. The paper considers the influence of the longevity of cows and their productivity on the quantitative indicators of methane emissions from dairy cattle. The following indicators were calculated: indicators of the size of the repair herd with different culling coefficients of young animals and the terms of use of cows; milk production volumes with different age structure of the main herd; average duration of productive longevity of cows in lactation with different values of average annual cow culling coefficients; average milk yield per head of dairy cattle herd and methane yield per kilogram of milk produced. Based on the results obtained, conclusions are drawn and proposals are made in the direction of reducing methane emissions in dairy cattle breeding.

Keywords: dairy cattle breeding, methane emission, productive longevity of cows, intensity of use of cows, repair young, average annual cow culling coefficient, specific methane yield

 

Information about the author:

V.A. Saraykin PhD (Economics), Professor, Chief Researcher (svalera@viapi.ru)

The article was submitted to the editorial office on 22.08.2022, approved after reviewing on 24.08.2022, accepted for publication on 29.08.2022

 

 

DOI 10.31442/0235-2494-2022-0-10-33-37

p. 33-37

Original article

The potential of increasing the production of cattle meat due to the inclusion in the turnover of unused natural forage lands

Alexander N. Kvochkin1, Valentina I. Kvochkina2

1,2Michurinsk State Agrarian University, Michurinsk, Tambov region, Russia

Abstract. The article discusses the possibilities of increasing the production of cattle meat. The area of unused natural forage lands in five regions of the Central Chernozem Economic Region and their fodder potential for the development of beef cattle breeding is estimated. The potential of increasing beef production has been assessed, primarily in small-scale farms and rural households with a herd of cows.

Keywords: food security, beef cattle breeding, small farming, natural forage lands

 

Information about the authors:

A.N. Kvochkin PhD (Economics), Associate Professor (kvochkin068@gmail.com)

V.I. Kvochkina PhD (Economics), Associate Professor (kvviv@yandex.ru)

The article was submitted to the editorial office on 01.06.2022, approved after reviewing 14.06.2022, accepted for publication on 20.06.2022

 

 

DOI 10.31442/0235-2494-2022-0-10-38-42

p. 38-42

Original article

Assessment and identification of environmental aspects in food production within the environmental management system

Natalia A. Jurk

Federal State Educational Institution of Higher Education Omsk State Agrarian University named after P.A. Stolypin, Omsk, Russia

Abstract. The solution of the problem of environmental pollution can be facilitated by the introduction of elements of an environmental management system in modern enterprises in accordance with the requirements of international standards ISO 14000. This paper reflects the features of the implementation of environmental management in the conditions of an existing enterprise for the production of bakery products. When assessing the emissions arising in the technological process of bakery products production, it was found which of them require particularly close attention. The identified negative environmental aspects, which are included in the area of unacceptable risk, must be strictly controlled at the enterprise. A list of environmental aspects of production has been compiled, indicating the sources of their occurrence, the technological operation and the degree of impact during the operation of the enterprise. The presented monitoring system allows you to visually coordinate the process of managing environmental aspects in the production of bakery products at the enterprise. The use of elements of the environmental management system will reduce the impact of harmful emissions on the environment or minimize them.

Keywords: environmental management system, environmental aspect, environmental impact, assessment, production, bakery products

 

Information about the author:

N.A. Jurk PhD (Engineering), Associate Professor (na.yurk@omgau.org)

The article was submitted to the editorial office on 15.08.2022, approved after reviewing and corresponding authors revision on 05.09.2022, accepted for publication on 08.09.2022

 

 

DOI 10.31442/0235-2494-2022-0-10-43-54

p. 43-54

Original article

Global innovative developments related to renewable energy in the scope of modern agrifood systems energy requirements

Andrey G. Paptsov1, Zhanna E. Sokolova2

1,2Federal Scientific Center of Agrarian Economy and Social Development of Rural Areas - VNIIESkH, Moscow, Russia

Abstract. Global agrifood system (AFS) today is one of the largest and most diversified energy consumers, since it is actually a reduced copy of the world economic system. Like other sectors of the world economy, technologies based on the renewable are penetrating rapidly the AFSs. This is a global trend however throughout leading economies the AFSs are still highly dependence on conventional and non-renewable energy sources. The article provides estimates of energy consumption volume in global AFS. The outperformance of renewable electricity production by country is demonstrated, as well as renewable energy share in certain areas of the AFS. The main part of the article associated with the analysis of innovative efforts aimed at increasing the competitiveness of modern renewables. The carried out analysis mainly concentrates upon the technologies of photovoltaic conversion of solar energy, since this area of renewable energy is currently predominant and is considered as the most promising. The cost factors of solar converters are investigated in the context of various innovative materials usage and the energy efficiency of various systems. Modern innovative approaches to a comprehensive assessment of the comparative competitiveness of the renewables, taking into account environmental and social externalities, are considered. The final part of the article covers one of the most important current problems for renewable energy progress in electricity accumulation efficiency, on which the diversity and number of individual end users of the renewables depend most significantly.

Keywords: agrifood (agri-food, agrofood) system, agriculture, food industry, energy consumption, energy saving, energy accumulation (storage), electricity, efficiency (efficiency factor), renewables, modern (new) renewables, solar energy, wind energy, photovoltaic conversion, solar batteries (panels, PV cells), innovative materials, environmental and social externalities, green jobs, levelized (levelised) cost of energy (electricity), minimum sustainable price, Energy Payback Time( EPBT)

Highlights: - an assessment of volume and structure of energy consumption in the global AFS is given;

-the global trend of reducing the energy intensity in global economy, agriculture and food industry is demonstrated;

-the advanced development of electricity production based on modern innovationoriented renewables (primarily photovoltaic transformation of solar energy) in the global electrical balance is justified;

- renewables role by country in agriculture, food industry and sectors of the economy that are important for AFS has been determined;

- price dynamics, efficiency of use and payback of various innovative types of solar panels for solar energy conversion are analyzed;

- the importance of an integrated innovative approach envisaging factor of social and environmental externalities in determining the competitiveness of the renewables is proved;

-the priority of future use of lithiumion batteries for the large-scale development of solar and wind energy is justified.

 

Information about the authors:

A.G. Paptsov Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Doctor of Economics, Professor, Director of the FSBSI FRC AESDRA VNIIESH (info@vniiesh.ru)

Zh.E. Sokolova, Doctor of Economics, Chief Researcher (sje.ciitei@vniiesh.ru)

The article was submitted to the editorial office on 06.09.2022, approved after reviewing on 12.09.2022, accepted for publication on 13.09.2022

 

 

DOI 10.31442/0235-2494-2022-0-10-55-61

p. 55-61

Original article

Adaptation of rural mechanizers to innovative economic conditions

Alexander N. Semin1, Grigory A. Iovlev2

1Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education Ural State Economic University, Yekaterinburg, Russia

2Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education Ural State Agrarian University, Yekaterinburg, Russia

Abstract. Agriculture is developing on the basis of the introduction of innovative technologies and the use of modern highly efficient equipment. The processes of modernization of the machine and tractor fleet are being carried out. Agricultural machinery (tractors, combine harvesters, forage harvesters, seeders and plows, various trailed and mounted equipment, etc.) is becoming noticeably more complex towards the use of information technology, electronics in automatic control systems, expanding functions, creating comfortable working conditions for employees. The article gives a brief description of the applied innovative technologies in crop and livestock industries. The main directions hindering the development and introduction of new high-performance agricultural machinery are outlined. On concrete examples and research results in the agro-industrial complex of the Sverdlovsk region, it is shown which age groups of machine operators who graduated from various educational institutions and courses prefer to work on one or another technique, how quickly they adapt to ultra-modern technology. The qualitative composition of the mechanical personnel has been specified. Specific recommendations are given on the formation of the machine and tractor fleet and the establishment of the optimal life of tractors.

Keywords: agriculture, mechanization personnel, new equipment, machine and tractor fleet, innovations, modernization, adaptation, optimization

 

Information about the authors:

A.N. Semin PhD (Economics), Professor, Academician of RAS, Honorary Worker of Science and Technology of the Russian Federation (aleks_ural_55@mail.ru)

G.A. Iovlev PhD (Economics), Associate Professor (gri-iovlev@yandex.ru)

The article was submitted to the editorial office on 06.08.2022, approved after reviewing on 15.08.2022, accepted for publication on 17.08.2022

 

 

DOI 10.31442/0235-2494-2022-0-10-62-71

p. 62-71

Original article

Processing of oilseeds in agricultural organizations of the Krasnoyarsk Territory and the choice of tax strategy

Lidia A. Ovsyanko1, Sergey A. Shelkovnikov2, Kristina V. Chepeleva3

1,3Krasnoyarsk State Agrarian University, Krasnoyarsk, Russia

2Novosibirsk State Agrarian University, Novosibirsk, Russia

Abstract. The article assesses the feasibility and effectiveness of the project for the processing of oilseeds, the industrial production of vegetable oils and feed products in the Krasnoyarsk Territory. The results of a marketing study of the oil and fat products market and a positioning option for an unconventional group of vegetable oils are presented. The analysis of the financial and economic activities of the leading enterprise of the agro-industrial complex of the Krasnoyarsk Territory, specializing in breeding, production and sale of elite seeds of wheat, barley, oats, was carried out; the prospects for organizing the production of oilseeds processing on its basis were determined. The connection of the project with the need to achieve the strategic goal of the region in meeting the needs of the population in locally produced products and a complex socio-economic effect (jobs, tax deductions) is reflected. The costs of the project and the main financial and economic performance indicators are presented. Options for taxation in the implementation of a project for the processing of oilseeds are considered, and the tax burden is determined. Directions for optimizing taxation and improving the financial results of economic activity in the implementation of a project for the processing of oilseeds are proposed. It is proved that for the leading enterprise of the agro-industrial complex of the Krasnoyarsk Territory, when implementing a project for the processing of oilseeds, it is advisable to apply the general taxation system.

Keywords: oilseeds, vegetable oils, project, processing, financial and economic indicators, taxation, optimization, tax burden, efficiency, unified agricultural tax, general taxation system, Krasnoyarsk Territory

Acknowledgements: the project The effectiveness of the use of various types of taxation systems by agricultural organizations of the Krasnoyarsk Territory was implemented with the support of the Krasnoyarsk Regional Science Foundation.

 

Information about the authors:

L.A. Ovsyanko PhD (Economics), Associate Professor (lidiya-ovs@mail.ru)

S.A. Shelkovnikov PhD (Economics), Professor (shelkovnikov1@rambler.ru)

K.V. Chepeleva PhD (Economics), Associate Professor(kristychepeleva@mail.ru)

The article was submitted to the editorial office on 12.08.2022, approved after reviewing on 01.09.2022, accepted for publication on 05.09.2022

 

 

DOI 10.31442/0235-2494-2022-0-10-72-78

p. 72-78

Original article

Farming and households of the population in ensuring food security

Vladimir D. Goncharov

A.A. Nikonov VIAPI branch of the FSBI FNC VNIIESH, Moscow, Russia

Abstract. The article shows the role of farming and households of the population in solving the problem of food security of the country. The analysis of the current level of agricultural production in small forms of management is given and measures to improve the countrys food security are proposed.

Keywords: farming, population farms, food security, crop production, animal husbandry, acreage, contract system

 

Information about the author:

V.D. Goncharov PhD (Economics), Professor, Chief Researcher (viapi@mail.ru)

The article was submitted to the editorial office on 16.09.2022, approved after reviewing and corresponding authors revision on 27.09.2022, accepted for publication on 28.08.2022